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  • Feedomics provides bidirectional omics strategies between genetics and nutrition for improved production in cattle

    Anim Nutr. 2022 Apr 4;9:314-319. doi: 10.1016/j.aninu.2022.03.002. eCollection 2022 Jun.

    ABSTRACT

    Increasing the efficiency and sustainability of cattle production is an effective way to produce valuable animal proteins for a growing human population. Genetics and nutrition are the 2 major research topics in selecting cattle with beneficial phenotypes and developing genetic potentials for improved performance. There is an inextricable link between genetics and nutrition, which urgently requires researchers to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms to optimize cattle production. Feedomics integrates a range of omic techniques to reveal the mechanisms at different molecular levels related to animal production and health, which can provide novel insights into the relationships of genes and nutrition/nutrients. In this review, we summarized the applications of feedomics techniques to reveal the effect of genetic elements on the response to nutrition and investigate how nutrients affect the functional genome of cattle from the perspective of both nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. We highlighted the roles of rumen microbiome in the interactions between host genes and nutrition. Herein, we discuss the importance of feedomics in cattle nutrition research, with a view to ensure that cattle exhibit the best production traits for human consumption from both genetic and nutritional aspects.

    PMID:35600547 | PMC:PMC9097626 | DOI:10.1016/j.aninu.2022.03.002

  • A Review of Fetal Bovine Serum in the Culture of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Potential Alternatives for Veterinary Medicine

    Front Vet Sci. 2022 May 3;9:859025. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.859025. eCollection 2022.

    ABSTRACT

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) remains widely used as a supplement in cell culture media used in the isolation and expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) despite longstanding practical, clinical, and ethical concerns over its use. As a result, research on alternative culture media supplement solutions that conserve crucial MSC characteristics has become increasingly relevant. Species-specific supplements and serum-free media such as platelet lysate or chemically defined media have been assessed for their effect in MSC cultures regarding proliferation, differentiation, and immunomodulatory capacity. While none of the alternatives offer a complete solution in replacing traditional FBS supplemented media for culturing MSCs for all species, short-term or transitional use of FBS-free media can perform equally well and could address some of the concerns over the use of FBS.

    PMID:35591873 | PMC:PMC9111178 | DOI:10.3389/fvets.2022.859025

  • Molecular Epidemiology, Species Distribution, and Zoonotic Importance of the Neglected Meat-Borne Pathogen Sarcocystis spp. in Cattle (Bos taurus): A Global Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Acta Parasitol. 2022 May 20. doi: 10.1007/s11686-022-00563-z. Online ahead of print.

    ABSTRACT

    BACKGROUND: Sarcocystis species are diverse apicomplexan parasites, though only two zoonotic species (S. hominis and S. heydorni) circulate between cattle and humans. Due to the importance of cattle in the human food chain and to prevent the consequences of parasitosis in humans, the first global systematic review and meta-analysis on molecular epidemiology, species distribution, and zoonotic significance of Sarcocystis infection in cattle was performed.

    METHODS: For this aim, four international English databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) were systematically searched till 20th September 2021, and random-effect models were drawn to calculate total estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Finally, 44 papers from 21 countries were qualified for this review which examined 8526 cattle regarding Sarcocystis infection, rendering a total prevalence of 62.7% (95% CI 53-71.5%). Globally, 12 Sarcocystis spp. have been reported from cattle, including S. cruzi, S. hominis, S. hirsuta, S. rommeli, S. heydorni, S. bovifelis, S. bovini, S. sinensis, S. gigantea, S. fusiformis, S. hjorti and S. tenella. Among them, S. cruzi (37 studies), S. hominis (22 studies) and S. hirsuta (19 studies) were the 3 most common species, with 76.4% (95% CI 64.8-85%), 30.2% (95% CI 19.3-44%) and 8.7% (95% CI 3.8-18.6%), respectively. However, molecular identification was not performed in 48.4% (95% CI 27.3-70.1%) of the positive samples.

    CONCLUSION: Despite the zoonotic significance of Sarcocystis spp., particularly S. hominis, the epidemiology and distribution of Sarcocystis infection in cattle remains unclear and demands more extensive researches around the world.

    PMID:35593956 | DOI:10.1007/s11686-022-00563-z

  • Bovine models for human ovarian diseases

    Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2022;189(1):101-154. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2022.02.001. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

    ABSTRACT

    During early embryonic development, late fetal growth, puberty, adult reproductive years, and advanced aging, bovine and human ovaries closely share molecular pathways and hormonal signaling mechanisms. Other similarities between these species include the size of ovaries, length of gestation, ovarian follicular and luteal dynamics, and pathophysiology of ovarian diseases. As an economically important agriculture species, cattle are a foundational species in fertility research with decades of groundwork using physiologic, genetic, and therapeutic experimental techniques. Many technologies used in modern reproductive medicine, such as ovulation induction using hormonal therapy, were first used in cows before human trials. Human ovarian diseases with naturally occurring bovine correlates include premature ovary insufficiency (POI), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and sex-cord stromal tumors (SCSTs). This article presents an overview of bovine ovary research related to causes of infertility, ovarian diseases, diagnostics, and therapeutics, emphasizing where the bovine model can offer advantages over other lab animals for translational applications.

    PMID:35595347 | DOI:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2022.02.001

  • Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in cattle – a review in the context of seasonal pasture-based dairy herds

    Ir Vet J. 2022 May 20;75(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s13620-022-00217-6.

    ABSTRACT

    Johne’s disease is an infectious disease affecting cattle, other ruminants and non-ruminant wildlife worldwide, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). This review provides an up-to-date concise overview of the pathogenesis of MAP, the significance of Johne’s disease in cattle and the use of diagnostic testing at both animal and herd level in the context of seasonal pasture-based herds. While MAP can only replicate intracellularly, the bacterium is sufficiently robust to survive for months in the environment. Transmission of MAP is mostly via the faecal-oral route, however in-utero transmission in also possible. The bacteria evade the immune system by persisting in macrophages in the small intestine submucosa, with this latent stage of infection lasting, in most cases, for at least two years before bacterial shedding and clinical signs begin. The slowly progressive nature of MAP infection, poor performance of diagnostic tests and management systems that expose susceptible calves to infection make control of Johne’s disease challenging, particularly in seasonal calving herds. Testing of individual animals provides little assurance for farmers and vets due to the poor sensitivity and, in the case of ELISA, imperfect specificity of the available tests. Repeated herd-level testing is utilised by the IJCP to detect infected herds, identify high risk animals, and provide increasing confidence that test-negative herds are free of infection. The IJCP aims to control the spread of Johne’s disease in cattle in Ireland, in order to protect non-infected herds, limit the economic and animal health impact of the disease, improve calf health and reassure markets of Johne’s disease control in Ireland.

    PMID:35590382 | PMC:PMC9121589 | DOI:10.1186/s13620-022-00217-6

  • Progress in Expression Pattern and Molecular Regulation Mechanism of LncRNA in Bovine Mastitis

    Animals (Basel). 2022 Apr 20;12(9):1059. doi: 10.3390/ani12091059.

    ABSTRACT

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory disease caused by pathogenic microbial infection, trauma, or other factors. Its morbidity is high, and it is difficult to cure, causing great harm to the health of cows and the safety of dairy products. Susceptibility or resistance to mastitis in individual cows is mainly determined by genetic factors, including coding genes and non-coding genes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding RNA molecules with a length of more than 200 nucleotides (nt) that have recently been discovered. They can regulate the immune response of humans and animals on three levels (transcription, epigenetic modification, and post-transcription), and are widely involved in the pathological process of inflammatory diseases. Over the past few years, extensive findings revealed basic roles of lncRNAs in inflammation, especially bovine mastitis. This paper reviews the expression pattern and mechanism of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in inflammatory diseases, emphasizes on the latest research progress of the lncRNA expression pattern and molecular regulatory mechanism in bovine mastitis, analyzes the molecular regulatory network of differentially expressed lncRNAs, and looks forward to the research and application prospect of lncRNA in bovine mastitis, laying a foundation for molecular breeding and the biological therapy of bovine mastitis.

    PMID:35565486 | PMC:PMC9105470 | DOI:10.3390/ani12091059

  • Effects of sucrose and lactose as partial replacement to corn in lactating dairy cow diets: a review

    Transl Anim Sci. 2022 Apr 12;6(2):txac044. doi: 10.1093/tas/txac044. eCollection 2022 Apr.

    ABSTRACT

    Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients that provides energy in diets and are classified by their structures. Starch is a nonstructural carbohydrate and polysaccharide made of glucose monomers used for storage in plant cells. When starch makes up greater than 30% of the DM in diets there can be adverse effects on NDF digestibility due to decreases in ruminal pH. Sugars are water soluble carbohydrates that consist of monosaccharide and disaccharide units. Sugars ferment faster than starch because microorganisms in the rumen can ferment carbohydrates at different rates depending on their structure; however, this has not been shown to have negative effects on the ruminal pH. Sources of sugars such as molasses (sucrose) or whey (lactose) can be included in the diet as a partial replacement for starch in dairy cow diets. The purpose of replacing starch with sugars in a diet would be to add differing sources of carbohydrates in the diet to allow for continual fermentation of carbohydrates by the microorganisms in the rumen. It has been seen in studies and previous literature that the partial replacement of starch with sugars has the potential to maintain the ruminal environment and milk yield and composition in dairy cows without reducing NDF digestibility. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effects of partially replacing starch with sugars in dairy diets and its implication on ruminal fermentation, nutrient utilization, milk production, and feeding replacement strategy.

    PMID:35529037 | PMC:PMC9071093 | DOI:10.1093/tas/txac044

  • Cow's milk protein allergy; new knowledge from a multidisciplinary perspective

    Arch Argent Pediatr. 2022 Jun;120(3):200-206. doi: 10.5546/aap.2022.eng.200.

    ABSTRACT

    In recent decades, a higher prevalence, persistence, and severity of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) have been observed. Different hypotheses have been proposed in relation to potential responsible mechanisms, with emphasis on the role of the microbiota in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance as well as the importance of establishing a healthy microbiota in an early manner through the promotion of breastfeeding, vaginal delivery, rational use of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, along with an early introduction of varied foods. The use of probiotics and allergenspecific immunotherapy (AIT) come up as the treatment strategies with the greatest evidence in favor of tolerance acquisition. The objective of this review was to describe the information currently available about the immune mechanisms involved in CMPA, the role of microbiota, and future treatment perspectives.

    PMID:35533123 | DOI:10.5546/aap.2022.eng.200

  • Bimodal interplay of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in physiology and pathophysiology of bovine sperm function

    Theriogenology. 2022 Apr 28;187:82-94. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2022.04.024. Online ahead of print.

    ABSTRACT

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are the mediators of redox activity and are known to perform concentration-specific bimodal roles. At lower concentrations, serves as a molecular messenger and signaling molecule while at higher concentrations induces stress which in turn alters the sperm’s functional characteristics. Production of ROS and RNS cannot be prevented entirely and should not be followed as a pragmatic approach as they are involved in numerous sperm physiological functions. When the antioxidants defense armory is meager, excess generation of these species cross the physiological limits and inactivates essential metabolic enzymes and disrupts signal transduction altering normal sperm functions. As per the available literature, oxidants mostly arise as a result of pathological conditions or cryopreservation-induced injury. Dead and debilitated or abnormal spermatozoa and associated leukocytes release free radicals in an excess amount which elicits oxidative and nitrosative stressors that are potentially toxic to cryosurviving sperm. ROS plays a double edge sword effect on sperm function, as regulators of physiological mechanisms at low levels and as toxicants when produced at high concentrations. Recently nitric oxide (NO.) has emerged as a potential regulator of sperm physiology, in addition, found to mediate homeostasis of the seminal plasma microenvironment when semen samples are incubated with optimal concentrations of NO. compounds. The NO. compounds can provide some resistance to future stresses which are not usually harnessed by using the defensive strategy of supplementing antioxidants. Therefore, through the optimized addition of NO. donor and inhibitor in extender, the free radical-induced damage can be avoided without inhibiting their essential physiological effects on fertilization and subsequent embryo development. This article is intended to describe the role of reactive oxidants in the physiology and pathophysiology of spermatozoa and their relationship with various seminal attributes.

    PMID:35512515 | DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2022.04.024

  • The role of the oviduct and extracellular vesicles during early embryo development in bovine

    Anim Reprod. 2022 Apr 20;19(1):e20220015. doi: 10.1590/1984-3143-AR2022-0015. eCollection 2022.

    ABSTRACT

    The oviduct is an important reproductive structure that connects the ovary to the uterus and takes place to important events such as oocyte final maturation, fertilization and early embryonic development. Thus, gametes and embryo can be directly influenced by the oviductal microenvironment composed by epithelial cells such secretory and ciliated cells and oviductal fluid. The oviduct composition is anatomically dynamic and is under ovarian hormones control. The oviductal fluid provides protection, nourishment and transport to gametes and embryo and allows interaction to oviductal epithelial cells. All these functions together allows the oviduct to provides the ideal environment to the early reproductive events. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological nanoparticles that mediates cell communication and are present at oviductal fluid and plays an important role in gametes/embryo – oviductal cells communication. This review will present the ability of the oviducts based on its dynamic and systemic changes during reproductive events, as well as the contribution of EVs in this process.

    PMID:35493787 | PMC:PMC9037602 | DOI:10.1590/1984-3143-AR2022-0015