- Integrating Omics Technologies for a Comprehensive Understanding of the Microbiome and Its Impact on Cattle Production
Biology (Basel). 2023 Sep 1;12(9):1200. doi: 10.3390/biology12091200.
Ruminant production holds a pivotal position within the global animal production and agricultural sectors. As population growth escalates, posing environmental challenges, a heightened emphasis is directed toward refining ruminant production systems. Recent investigations underscore the connection between the composition and functionality of the rumen microbiome and economically advantageous traits in cattle. Consequently, the development of innovative strategies to enhance cattle feed efficiency, while curbing environmental and financial burdens, becomes imperative. The advent of omics technologies has yielded fresh insights into metabolic health fluctuations in dairy cattle, consequently enhancing nutritional management practices. The pivotal role of the rumen microbiome in augmenting feeding efficiency by transforming low-quality feedstuffs into energy substrates for the host is underscored. This microbial community assumes focal importance within gut microbiome studies, contributing indispensably to plant fiber digestion, as well as influencing production and health variability in ruminants. Instances of compromised animal welfare can substantially modulate the microbiological composition of the rumen, thereby influencing production rates. A comprehensive global approach that targets both cattle and their rumen microbiota is paramount for enhancing feed efficiency and optimizing rumen fermentation processes. This review article underscores the factors that contribute to the establishment or restoration of the rumen microbiome post perturbations and the intricacies of host-microbiome interactions. We accentuate the elements responsible for responsible host-microbiome interactions and practical applications in the domains of animal health and production. Moreover, meticulous scrutiny of the microbiome and its consequential effects on cattle production systems greatly contributes to forging more sustainable and resilient food production systems, thereby mitigating the adverse environmental impact.
- The Role of Bovine Kappa-Casein Glycomacropeptide in Modulating the Microbiome and Inflammatory Responses of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients. 2023 Sep 15;15(18):3991. doi: 10.3390/nu15183991.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder marked by chronic abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular bowel habits. Effective treatments are still actively sought. Kappa-casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), a milk-derived peptide, holds promise because it can modulate the gut microbiome, immune responses, gut motility, and barrier functions, as well as binding toxins. These properties align with the recognized pathophysiological aspects of IBS, including gut microbiota imbalances, immune system dysregulation, and altered gut barrier functions. This review delves into GMP’s role in regulating the gut microbiome, accentuating its influence on bacterial populations and its potential to promote beneficial bacteria while inhibiting pathogenic varieties. It further investigates the gut microbial shifts observed in IBS patients and contemplates GMP’s potential for restoring microbial equilibrium and overall gut health. The anti-inflammatory attributes of GMP, especially its impact on vital inflammatory markers and capacity to temper the low-grade inflammation present in IBS are also discussed. In addition, this review delves into current research on GMP’s effects on gut motility and barrier integrity and examines the changes in gut motility and barrier function observed in IBS sufferers. The overarching goal is to assess the potential clinical utility of GMP in IBS management.
- A Systematic Review of the Recent Techniques Commonly Used in the Diagnosis of <em>Mycoplasma bovis</em> in Dairy Cattle
Pathogens. 2023 Sep 19;12(9):1178. doi: 10.3390/pathogens12091178.
Early detection of Mycoplasmal mastitis is greatly hampered by late seroconversion, slow growth of Mycoplasma organisms, intermittent shedding, and the high cost of diagnostic tests. To improve future diagnostic development, examining the available techniques is necessary. Accordingly, the present study systematically reviewed M. bovis diagnostic studies published between January 2000 and April 2023 utilizing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. The protocol registration was performed according to the Open Science Framework (osf.io/ug79h), and the electronic search was conducted in the World Catalog, Mendeley, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Semantic Scholar, PubMed, Google Scholar, Prime Scholar, and PubMed Central databases using a Boolean operator and inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 1194 pieces of literature retrieved, 67 studies were included. Four broad categories of up to 16 diagnostic approaches were reported: microbial culture, serological, DNA-based, and mass spectrometry. Overall, DNA-based techniques were the most published (48.0%), with recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as the most promising user-friendly, equipment-free techniques. On the other hand, mass spectrometry was reported as the least utilized (2.9%) given the high equipment cost. Though costly and laboratory-allied, DNA-based techniques, particularly PCRs, were reported as the most rapid and specific approach.
- Current Advances in Bovine In Vitro Maturation and Embryo Production Using Different Antioxidants: A Review
J Dev Biol. 2023 Aug 29;11(3):36. doi: 10.3390/jdb11030036.
In vitro maturation (IVM) is one of the most important steps in in vitro embryo production (IVEP). It is a complicated procedure in which nuclear and cytoplasmatic changes in oocytes appear. In order to carry out the in vitro maturation procedure correctly, it is necessary to provide the oocytes with as close to a natural (in vivo) environment as possible. Many factors contribute to the overall poor quality of in vitro-matured oocytes. One important factor may be oxidative stress (OS). The generation of oxidants, such as reactive oxygen species, is common under culture conditions. The solution for OC treatment and prevention is antioxidants. In the last 5 years, many studies have examined different antioxidants and their effects on in vitro maturation of oocytes and embryo production. The aim of this systematic review was to present the achievements of scientific research in the last five years, in which the effects of many antioxidants were tested on bovine oocyte maturation and embryo production.
- Beta-Adrenergic Agonists, Dietary Protein, and Rumen Bacterial Community Interactions in Beef Cattle: A Review
Vet Sci. 2023 Sep 18;10(9):579. doi: 10.3390/vetsci10090579.
Improving beef production efficiency, sustainability, and food security is crucial for meeting the growing global demand for beef while minimizing environmental impact, conserving resources, ensuring economic viability, and promoting animal welfare. Beta-adrenergic agonists and dietary protein have been critical factors in beef cattle production. Beta-agonists enhance growth, improve feed efficiency, and influence carcass composition, while dietary protein provides the necessary nutrients for muscle development and overall health. A balanced approach to their use and incorporation into cattle diets can lead to more efficient and sustainable beef production. However, microbiome technologies play an increasingly important role in beef cattle production, particularly by optimizing rumen fermentation, enhancing nutrient utilization, supporting gut health, and enhancing feed efficiency. Therefore, optimizing rumen fermentation, diet, and growth-promoting technologies has the potential to increase energy capture and improve performance. This review addresses the interactions among beta-adrenergic agonists, protein level and source, and the ruminal microbiome. By adopting innovative technologies, sustainable practices, and responsible management strategies, the beef industry can contribute to a more secure and sustainable food future. Continued research and development in this field can lead to innovative solutions that benefit both producers and the environment.
- Serological diagnosis of fasciolosis (<em>Fasciola hepatica</em>) in humans, cattle, and sheep: a meta-analysis
Front Vet Sci. 2023 Aug 31;10:1252454. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1252454. eCollection 2023.
Fasciola hepatica can cause problems in both animals and humans. Fasciolosis can be diagnosed through the indirect ELISA immunodiagnostic test. Serological diagnosis of Fasciola is based on recombinant antigens secreted by this worm. We used PubMed and Google Scholar databases to review the published literature on ‘antigens with immunogenic potential’ used in serological tests to identify antibodies against F. hepatica in humans, cattle, and sheep. Studies that investigated diagnostic tests with common reference standards were included in the sensitivity and/or specificity bivariate meta-analysis. In the quality and susceptibility to bias analysis of the 33 included studies, 26 fulfilled at least six (75%) of the eight QUADAS criteria and were considered good-quality papers. We found that most of the studies used native excretory-secretory antigens and recombinant cathepsin in ELISA tests for serological diagnosis of fascioliasis in humans, cattle, and sheep. The meta-analysis revealed that all antigens demonstrated good accuracy. The best results in terms of sensitivity [0.931-2.5% confidence interval (CI) and 0.985-97.5% CI] and specificity (0.959-2.5% CI and 0.997-97.5% CI) were found in human FhES. FhrCL-1, FhES, and FhrSAP-2 antigens gave the best results for the serum diagnosis of human and animal fasciolosis.
- Very early onset perinatal constipation: Can it be cow's milk protein allergy?
World J Gastroenterol. 2023 Sep 7;29(33):4920-4926. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v29.i33.4920.
Delayed passage of meconium or constipation during the perinatal period is traditionally regarded as a signal to initiate further work up to evaluate for serious diagnoses such as Hirschsprung’s disease (HD), meconium ileus due to Cystic Fibrosis, etc. The diagnosis of HD particularly warrants invasive testing to confirm the diagnosis, such as anorectal manometry or rectal suction biopsy. What if there was another etiology of perinatal constipation, that is far lesser known? Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is often diagnosed in infants within the first few weeks of life, however, there are studies that show that the CMPA allergen can be passed from mother to an infant in-utero, therefore allowing symptoms to show as early as day one of life. The presentation is more atypical, with perinatal constipation rather than with bloody stools, diarrhea, and vomiting. The diagnosis and management would be avoidance of cow’s milk protein within the diet, with results and symptom improvement in patients immediately. Therefore, we discuss whether an alternative pathway to address perinatal constipation should be further discussed and implemented to potentially avoid invasive techniques in patients. This entails first ruling out CMPA with safe, noninvasive techniques with diet modification, and if unsuccessful, then moving forward with further diagnostic modalities.
- Bovine Lameness from the Ground up
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2023 Sep 19:S0749-0720(23)00053-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2023.08.003. Online ahead of print.
Lameness in bulls is a common problem seen by many veterinarians, and the cause can be difficult to determine. Understanding cattle lameness requires experience and complete knowledge of their structural anatomy and handling. This article reviews the common body regions that cause lameness in bulls and discusses their treatment. It also details hoof trimming as a way to manage lameness.
- Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of long non-coding RNAs in bovine ovarian follicles and early embryos
PLoS One. 2023 Sep 19;18(9):e0291761. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0291761. eCollection 2023.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been the subject of numerous studies over the past decade. First thought to come from aberrant transcriptional events, lncRNAs are now considered a crucial component of the genome with roles in multiple cellular functions. However, the functional annotation and characterization of bovine lncRNAs during early development remain limited. In this comprehensive analysis, we review lncRNAs expression in bovine ovarian follicles and early embryos, based on a unique database comprising 468 microarray hybridizations from a single platform designed to target 7,724 lncRNA transcripts, of which 5,272 are intergenic (lincRNA), 958 are intronic, and 1,524 are antisense (lncNAT). Compared to translated mRNA, lncRNAs have been shown to be more tissue-specific and expressed in low copy numbers. This analysis revealed that protein-coding genes and lncRNAs are both expressed more in oocytes. Differences between the oocyte and the 2-cell embryo are also more apparent in terms of lncRNAs than mRNAs. Co-expression network analysis using WGCNA generated 25 modules with differing proportions of lncRNAs. The modules exhibiting a higher proportion of lncRNAs were found to be associated with fewer annotated mRNAs and housekeeping functions. Functional annotation of co-expressed mRNAs allowed attribution of lncRNAs to a wide array of key cellular events such as meiosis, translation initiation, immune response, and mitochondrial related functions. We thus provide evidence that lncRNAs play diverse physiological roles that are tissue-specific and associated with key cellular functions alongside mRNAs in bovine ovarian follicles and early embryos. This contributes to add lncRNAs as active molecules in the complex regulatory networks driving folliculogenesis, oogenesis and early embryogenesis all of which are necessary for reproductive success.
- Applications of human and bovine serum albumins in biomedical engineering: A review
Int J Biol Macromol. 2023 Sep 14:126914. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.126914. Online ahead of print.
Serum albumin, commonly recognized as a predominant major plasma protein, is ubiquitously distributed among vertebrates, demonstrating versatility and widespread accessibility. Numerous studies have discussed the composition and attributes of human and bovine serum albumin; nonetheless, few systematic and comprehensive summaries on human and bovine serum albumin exist. This paper reviews the applications of human and bovine serum albumin in biomedical engineering. First, we introduce the differences in the structure of human and bovine serum albumin. Next, we describe the extraction methods for human and bovine serum albumin (fractionation process separation, magnetic adsorption, reverse micellar (RM) extraction, and genetic engineering) and the advantages and disadvantages of recently developed extraction methods. The characteristics of different processing forms of human and bovine serum albumin are also discussed, concomitantly elucidating their intrinsic properties, functions, and applications in biomedicine. Notably, their pivotal functions as carriers for drugs and tissue-engineered scaffolds, as well as their contributions to cell reproduction and bioimaging, are critically examined. Finally, to provide guidance for researchers in their future work, this review summarizes the current state of human and bovine serum albumin research and outlines potential future research topics.