- Review of Associated Health Benefits of Algal Supplementation in Cattle with Reference to Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Feedlot Systems
Animals (Basel). 2022 Jul 30;12(15):1943. doi: 10.3390/ani12151943.
Within the Australian beef industry bovine respiratory disease is considered one of the most common disease and costs the industry an average net loss of $1647.53 Australian dollars per animal death to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD). This is due to the disease overwhelming the animal’s immune system during a period where they experience multiple stressors that consequently increase the animal’s susceptivity to disease. Research into the bioactive compounds commonly found in marine algae is rapidly increasing due to its positive health benefits and potential immune modulating properties. Algal supplementation within previous studies has resulted in improved reproduction potential, growth performance, increases antioxidant activity and decreased proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. Additional research is required to further understand the aetiology of BRD and complete analysis of the bioavailability of these bioactive compounds within marine algae to fully explore the potential of marine algae supplementation.
- An Update on Applications of Cattle Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Animals (Basel). 2022 Aug 2;12(15):1956. doi: 10.3390/ani12151956.
Attention on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) research has increased in the last decade mainly due to the promising results about their plasticity, self-renewal, differentiation potential, immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that have made stem cell therapy more clinically attractive. Furthermore, MSCs can be easily isolated and expanded to be used for autologous or allogenic therapy following the administration of either freshly isolated or previously cryopreserved cells. The scientific literature on the use of stromal cells in the treatment of several animal health conditions is currently available. Although MSCs are not as widely used for clinical treatments in cows as for companion and sport animals, they have the potential to be employed to improve productivity in the cattle industry. This review provides an update on state-of-the-art applications of bovine MSCs to clinical treatments and reproductive biotechnologies.
- Bovine leptospirosis: effects on reproduction and an approach to research in Colombia
Trop Anim Health Prod. 2022 Aug 9;54(5):251. doi: 10.1007/s11250-022-03235-2.
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide, causing severe effects on beef and dairy cattle farming and other livestock. Colombia geographical location in the tropical zone, high biodiversity, and climatic conditions promote Leptospira growth and prevalence. This review article presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the effects of leptospirosis on bovine reproduction and a critical analysis of the research carried out in Colombia. The analysis of the information allows us to infer a sustained increase in prevalence over the last decade in the densest livestock production areas and a high serovar diversity of circulating pathogenic Leptospira. Given the zoonotic nature of leptospirosis, an inter-institutional effort is required to implement prevention, control, and monitoring programs under one-health concept.
- Clinical research review: usefulness of bovine lactoferrin in child health
Biometals. 2022 Aug 9. doi: 10.1007/s10534-022-00430-4. Online ahead of print.
Lactoferrin (LF) is abundant in human milk and plays an important role in the health of children. Bovine LF (bLF) has high homology with human LF and has been reported to have multiple biological functions. Several clinical studies have been conducted considering these properties, which reported the usefulness of bLF. This review was aimed to provide an overview of the clinical evidence in children. We searched clinical reports investigating the effects of bLF in children and identified 36 studies on the role of bLF in infections, iron metabolism, body growth, cerebral development, and fecal microbiome. Considering the accumulated evidence, bLF may contribute to the child health, particularly by suppressing or alleviating gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and improving the iron status of children with anemia or those at high risk of anemia. The dose of bLF varies depending on the expected effect and target age, but may not necessarily have to be as high as human LF in human milk. Some of the beneficial effects of bLF have not been fully validated due to limited clinical evidence or being observed in the secondary analysis of some studies. Further clinical evidence would add significant value to the use of bLF in child health.
- Invited review: Selective use of antimicrobials in dairy cattle at drying-off
J Dairy Sci. 2022 Aug 2:S0022-0302(22)00425-8. doi: 10.3168/jds.2021-21455. Online ahead of print.
Administering intramammary antimicrobials to all mammary quarters of dairy cows at drying-off [i.e., blanket dry cow therapy (BDCT)] has been a mainstay of mastitis prevention and control. However, as udder health has considerably improved over recent decades with reductions in intramammary infection prevalence at drying-off and the introduction of teat sealants, BDCT may no longer be necessary on all dairy farms, thereby supporting antimicrobial stewardship efforts. This narrative review summarizes available literature regarding current dry cow therapy practices and associated impacts of selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) on udder health, milk production, economics, antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance. Various methods to identify infections at drying-off that could benefit from antimicrobial treatment are described for selecting cows or mammary quarters for treatment, including utilizing somatic cell count thresholds, pathogen identification, previous clinical mastitis history, or a combination of criteria. Selection methods may be enacted at the herd, cow, or quarter levels. Producers’ and veterinarians’ motivations for antimicrobial use are discussed. Based on review findings, SDCT can be adopted without negative consequences for udder health and milk production, and concurrent teat sealant use is recommended, especially in udder quarters receiving no intramammary antimicrobials. Furthermore, herd selection should be considered for SDCT implementation in addition to cow or quarter selection, as BDCT may still be temporarily necessary in some herds for optimal mastitis control. Costs and benefits of SDCT vary among herds, whereas impacts on antimicrobial resistance remain unclear. In summary, SDCT is a viable management option for maintaining udder health and milk production while improving antimicrobial stewardship in the dairy industry.
- New Roles for EVs, miRNA and lncRNA in Bovine Embryo Implantation
Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jul 15;9:944370. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.944370. eCollection 2022.
The sine qua non of new life is fertilization. However, approximately 50% of fertilized eggs/blastocysts in cattle and up to 75% of those from human assisted reproductive procedures fail during the first 3 to 4 weeks of pregnancy, including peri-implantation periods. In these periods, blastocyst hatching and implantation to the maternal endometrium proceeds, during which physiological events such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and trophoblast cell fusion occur. Quite recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) with micro RNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to play a pivotal role for the establishment of the proper uterine environment required for peri-implantation processes to proceed. New findings of EVs, miRNA, and lncRNAs will be described and discussed to elucidate their connections with conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium.
- Review: Assessment of dairy cow welfare at pasture: measures available, gaps to address, and pathways to development of ad-hoc protocols
Animal. 2022 Jul 27;16(8):100597. doi: 10.1016/j.animal.2022.100597. Online ahead of print.
Pasture is generally perceived as positive for dairy cow welfare, but it nevertheless exposes cows to heat, parasites, and other challenges. This review is intended for people ready to design comprehensive protocols for assessing the welfare of dairy cows at pasture. We provide an overview of the benefits and risks of pasture for cows, and then go on to identify the available and feasible measures for assessing cow welfare at pasture and the gaps that need to be addressed to develop specific welfare measures. Some of the measures from on-farm welfare assessment protocols designed for indoor use (e.g. Welfare Quality®) are relevant for cows at pasture (e.g. lameness scoring). However, the timing, location and/or method for certain measures (e.g. observation of social behaviour) need to be adapted to the pasture context, as cows at pasture can roam over a large area. Measures to address specific pasture-related risks (e.g. heat stress, biosecurity) or benefits (e.g. expression of a wide range of behaviours) should be implemented in order to capture all dimensions of cow welfare at pasture. Furthermore, cow welfare is liable to vary over the grazing season due to changes in weather conditions, grass quality and pasture plots that induce variations in lying surface conditions, food availability, distance to walk to the milking parlour, and so on. It is therefore important to investigate the variability in different welfare measures across the pasture season to check whether they hold stable over time and, if not, to determine solutions that can give an overview across the grazing season. Sensors offer a promising complement to animal and environment observations, as they can capture long-term animal monitoring data, which is simply not possible for a one-day welfare-check visit. We conclude that some measures validated for indoor situations can already be used in pasture-based systems, while others need to be validated for their fitness for purpose and/or use in pasture conditions. Furthermore, thresholds should probably be determined for measures to fit with pasture contexts. If all measures can be made adaptable to all situations encountered on farms or variants of the measures can at least be proposed for each criterion, then it should be possible to produce a comprehensive welfare assessment protocol suitable for large-scale use in near future.
- Enteric <em>Escherichia coli</em> O157:H7 in Cattle, and the Use of Mice as a Model to Elucidate Key Aspects of the Host-Pathogen-Microbiota Interaction: A Review
Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jul 11;9:937866. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.937866. eCollection 2022.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks, typically associated with the consumption of undercooked foods contaminated with cattle manure containing the bacterium. At present, effective mitigations do not exist. Many of the factors regulating enteric colonization by E. coli O157:H7 in cattle, and how cattle respond to the bacterium are unknown. In this regard, intestinal colonization locations, shedding patterns, interactions with the enteric microbiota, and host immune responses to infection are current knowledge gaps. As disturbances to host homeostasis are believed to play an important role in the enteric survival of the bacterium, it is important to consider the potential importance of stress during cattle production. Husbandry logistics, cost, and the high genetic, physiological, and microbial heterogeneity in cattle has greatly hampered the ability of researchers to elucidate key aspects of the host-pathogen-microbiota interaction. Although mice have not been extensively used as a cattle model, the utilization of murine models has the potential to identify mechanisms to facilitate hypothesis formulation and efficacy testing in cattle. Murine models have been effectively used to mechanistically examine colonization of the intestine, host responses to infection, and to interactively ascertain how host physiological status (e.g., due to physiological stress) and the enteric microbiota influences colonization and disease. In addition to reviewing the relevant literature on intestinal colonization and pathogenesis, including existing knowledge gaps, the review provides information on how murine models can be used to elucidate mechanisms toward the development of rationale-based mitigations for E. coli O157:H7 in cattle.
- Utilizing the Gastrointestinal Microbiota to Modulate Cattle Health through the Microbiome-Gut-Organ Axes
Microorganisms. 2022 Jul 10;10(7):1391. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms10071391.
The microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants have a mutualistic relationship with the host that influences the efficiency and health of the ruminants. The GIT microbiota interacts with the host immune system to influence not only the GIT, but other organs in the body as well. The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of the role the gastrointestinal microbiota plays in modulating the health of a host through communication with different organs in the body through the microbiome-gut-organ axes. Among other things, the GIT microbiota produces metabolites for the host and prevents the colonization of pathogens. In order to prevent dysbiosis of the GIT microbiota, gut microbial therapies can be utilized to re-introduce beneficial bacteria and regain homeostasis within the rumen environment and promote gastrointestinal health. Additionally, controlling GIT dysbiosis can aid the immune system in preventing disfunction in other organ systems in the body through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, the microbiome-gut-lung axis, the microbiome-gut-mammary axis, and the microbiome-gut-reproductive axis.
- Review on Bovine Tuberculosis: An Emerging Disease Associated with Multidrug-Resistant <em>Mycobacterium</em> Species
Pathogens. 2022 Jun 21;11(7):715. doi: 10.3390/pathogens11070715.
Bovine tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease affecting a wide range of domesticated and wild animals, representing a worldwide economic and public health burden. The disease is caused by Mycobacteriumbovis and infrequently by other pathogenic mycobacteria. The problem of bovine tuberculosis is complicated when the infection is associated with multidrug and extensively drug resistant M. bovis. Many techniques are used for early diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, either being antemortem or postmortem, each with its diagnostic merits as well as limitations. Antemortem techniques depend either on cellular or on humoral immune responses, while postmortem diagnosis depends on adequate visual inspection, palpation, and subsequent diagnostic procedures such as bacterial isolation, characteristic histopathology, and PCR to reach the final diagnosis. Recently, sequencing and bioinformatics tools have gained increasing importance for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, including, but not limited to typing, detection of mutations, phylogenetic analysis, molecular epidemiology, and interactions occurring within the causative mycobacteria. Consequently, the current review includes consideration of bovine tuberculosis as a disease, conventional and recent diagnostic methods, and the emergence of MDR-Mycobacterium species.